Breast cancer can strike anyone, young or old, male or female, from all ethnic backgrounds and walks of life.
The most common sign of breast cancer is a lump or mass. Other common symptoms include breast swelling, skin irritation, the nipple turning inward, nipple discharge (not breast milk), and breast or nipple pain. These signs may be noticed during a breast
self-exam, routine clinical breast exam or screening mammogram. If a suspicious-looking area is detected, additional testing will be used to either confirm a breast cancer diagnosis or identify a benign condition.
Breast Cancer is not a disease to be taken lightly. Over the years, medical technology has greatly improved so that physicians can detect earlier if women are at risk or if they have breast cancer.
Procedures offered at Coral Gables Hospital
Imaging tests can help locate a breast mass, but they cannot confirm a breast cancer diagnosis. This is done during a biopsy to remove cells or tissue samples for laboratory testing. There are three main types of biopsies:
Fine needle aspiration biopsy involves inserting a very thin needle into the suspicious area to withdraw cells. Ultrasound may be used to guide the needle if the lump cannot be easily located.
A core needle biopsy uses a slightly larger needle to remove three to five small cylinders of tissue from the breast abnormality. Larger core biopsies can be performed using suction to remove tissue samples.
Surgery may be recommended to remove all or part of a lump for examination. During an incisional biopsy, a sample is removed from the abnormal area. An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire mass as well as a surrounding margin of normal tissue
If cancer cells are found after a biopsy, test results can determine the cancer type and whether it is invasive (likely to spread) or in situ (localized). Invasive cancers are assigned a grade based on how closely the sample resembles normal tissue and
the likelihood the cancer will grow and spread. An estrogen and progesterone receptor test can determine whether hormone therapy may help stop the cancer from growing. A human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 test can measure a growth factor protein
that may cause cancer cells to spread more aggressively.
For more information about breast cancer, talk with your doctor or visit the American Cancer Society website at www.cancer.org.
An ultrasound uses sound waves to produce an image of tissue inside the breast. It can be used to determine whether a breast abnormality is a solid mass, indicating a possible tumor, or a fluid-filled mass, such as a cyst. Ultrasound can also be used
to guide a physician conducting a biopsy to get a sample of breast tissue.
Mammography is the most effective form of early detection for breast cancer. Comprehensive breast cancer screening services include digital diagnostic mammography and Myriad genetic testing for breast cancer.
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